LHASA APSO HISTORY
Dogs from the Roof of the World
Many unusual Breeds Found in Tibet the Strange Land That Lies in the Clouds
By The Hon. Mrs. Eric Bailey
Due to airship and the radio, the world is growing smaller and smaller, and there is practically no country that is now a complete mystery to civilized man. Probably Tibet still remains the most mysterious, although the veil that hides this astonishingly interesting country is rapidly being torn aside, and we are learning more and more about these ancient people who live beyond the Himalayan Mountains. I have no intention of going into any great description of Tibet, I am assuming that you know it is a strange land of quaint little people, cheerful and kindly, yet hot tempered when roused. But I do want to talk about their dogs, which are commencing to be of interest to fanciers of both Great Britain and the United States.
Broadly speaking, Tibet has several distinct types of dogs. These have all been seen in either England or the United States. In addition to these major types, there a number of other breeds - many hardly known out-side of Tibet - that I will mention a little later in my story. It quite often happens that names mean very little when they are transplanted in another country. As an example take the name Tibet, or, as it is sometimes written, "Thibet", is not generally used by Tibetans. They call their country Bod, and they call themselves Bod-pa, or "people of Bod".
According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the word "Tibet" came to be used by Europeans because the great plateau with its uplands bordering the frontiers of China, Mongolia, and Kashmir, through which the traveler communicated with Bod, is called by natives Tu-bhot, or "High Bod" or "Tibet"; which designation, in the loose orthography of travelers, assumed a variety of forms. Therefore it is not at all surprising to find that the word "Apso" is the Tibetan name for any long-haired dog. It is a corruption of "Rapso" which means "goat-like". These dogs are, in general appearance, not unlike the small, long-haired goats of the country, though, of course, the dogs are smaller.
Apso dogs of many kinds are found in Tibet, but after considerable experience with the nobles of Tibet, I was able to find out the kind generally preferred. This, as it is purely a pet for the house, is a small dog. Then it must, as the name implies, have long hair, the longer the better within reason. Then, as regards colour, the commonest is black or iron grey, but the Tibetans prefer a golden or honey-colored dog. The long-legged dogs shown in Western countries would not be admired in Tibet.
As far as I know, the name "Apso" first appeared in English in connection with these dogs in the Daily Mail (London) of August 19, 1929. The difficulty that a European encounters in trying to get any of these Apso dogs is well illustrated by my own case. In 1920-21, Colonel R.S. Kennedy was in Lhasa for about a year as Medical Officer with Sir Charles Bell, who at that time, was Political Officer for Tibet. In gratitude for his treatment of his wife , the Commander in Chief (Tsarong Shape) wished to give Colonel Kennedy some valuable present. This Colonel Kennedy refused, but eventually accepted a pair of dogs. The male was named Sengtru and the female Apso. These dogs he took to India, but in 1922 he retired from Government service, and presented the two dogs to me. My husband was then Political Officer for Tibet having succeeded Sir Charles Bell in 1921, and we lived in Sikkim, on the Tibetan frontier, for seven years.
We visited Tibet each year, taking these two dogs with us. We tried very hard to get more dogs of the same kind. Similar dogs are easy to find but we were particular to get only the same type in all particulars, including especially color. This we found impossible. In 1924, my husband spent a month in Lhasa, seeing the late Dalai Lama frequently, and through His Holiness and other high officers, he tried to get more dogs of the correct type. There are, of course no shows in Tibet, and consequently breeding is not as carefully done as with us, and he found it very difficult to get dogs which comprised all the points Tibetan like: size, shape, length and texture of coat, color, and so forth.
However, he found one bitch, the property of a young Tibetan officer named Demon. The owner would not part with her, but allowed my husband to take her away to breed from. This was essential as, up to that time, we had only bred from the original pair, and there was danger to the strain from in-breeding. This bitch we named Demon, as the owner called her Apso, the same name as one we had. A litter was born from her, sired by our Singtru, and in due course the bitch was sent back to Tibet. She was, however lost on the road and never seen again.
My husband gave up his appointment in 1928 by which time we had still failed to get any more of the dogs which fulfilled all our requirements. As we did not expect to return to Tibet, it was essential to get another dog to bring in fresh blood, and so we obtained a male dog, Lhasa, which was what we were looking for in all respects except color. Lhasa is a white and grey dog and not a uniform color. We took him, as he was the nearest we could find. I am glad to say that his progeny have, so far, been of excellent color. Lhasa was the property of the late Mr. Martin, of British Trade Agency, at Gyantse, in Tibet, who had had him for eight years before he presented him to me. Then he became the property of Mr. Dudley of the Kennels Brambledown, Sheerness. In 1928 we brought to England this dog Lhasa, and also five of the descendants of Sergtru, Apso and Demon. These were Taktru, Droma, Tsitru, Pema and Litsi.
Speaking of the naming of these dogs, you may be interested to know that the Tibetan
word "Tru-gu " means "the young" of anything. In combination with
another word this is abbreviated to Tru , e.g. Seng-e is the Tibetan for lion. Seng-tru (
an abbreviation for Seng-e Tru - gu ), means "young lion" The Tibetans have very
little imagination in naming their dogs, and most dogs of the Apso breed, being the
lion-dogs of Tibet are called either Seng-tru or simply Apso.
When we started our kennel we tried to keep to the idea of the young of carnivorous animals. Thus we got Tak-tru ," the young tiger"; Sik-tru , the "young leopard"; Sa-tru , the "young snow leopard"; I-tru , the "young wolf" and so on . Later, we had to forsake the carnivorae for Tsi-tru , the "young mouse" and so forth. Owing to this difficulty of finding sufficient names from the young of animals we finally used the names of Tibetan girls and goddesses for the bitches among our Apso dogs.
Speaking of names, mastiffs in Tibetan are called Do-Kyi , which means " a dog you can tie up ". Do-Kyi are kept by every nomad and sheek- or yak-herd to guard the tents. Marco Polo, in the account of his journey into Tibet in the fourteenth century, mentions these dogs and remarks that they are as large as donkeys. This has always been considered as an absurd exaggeration on his part, but as the donkeys in Tibet are abnormally small this is not such an inaccuracy as one might think.
Besides guarding tents they are very often also used to guard houses. To make them fierce, the people keep these mastiffs tied up all their lives from the moment they are about a month or two old. One result is that the mastiffs in villages are sometimes rickety with twisted, deformed limbs, while the hind-legs especially may be poorly developed. The nomad's or shepherd's dog has occasionally to move camp with his master and avoids this trouble in an exaggerated form, but in Tibet they are not active dogs, except when actually carriyng out the military precept that attack is often the best form of defense. They are, of course, quite unsuited to hunting game in any form.
As to approach a Tibetan encampment, the first sign of life is usually the barking of dogs. On this, the owners come out their black yak-hair tents and inspect the cause of the alarm. They, or more usually their children, then see that all dogs fastenings are secure, and often hold the dogs down while it strains to reach the stranger. Although fierce, as the result of being tied up from puppyhood, these mastiffs are very affectionate and good tempered with the people they know, and one often sees the smallest children handling and calling them off from their attempts to attack the intruder with perfect ease and safety. The mastiffs, and sometimes the hunting dogs also, wear a large fluffy collar of wood dyed bright red. This red collar can usually be seen in pictures of scenery by Tibetan artists.
Tibetan mastiffs are usually black in color with tan points. One of the high officials of His Holiness the Tashi Lama once had some entirely black ones, of which he was very proud, but tan markings are more usual. Not frequently red dogs are found in a litter. The dog is very heavily built with a thick coat. The head is particularly heavy and the flews so pendant that the red of the eye is conspicuous. This, in a country like Tibet, subject to dust, wind and glare, often leads to diseased eyes owing to dirt and lack of care and cleanliness. The whole head is large and heavy, but the heads of females are notably smaller and lighter than those of males. The Tibetans especially admire a deep-voiced bark.
In 1928 we imported five of these mastiffs. The best one was undoubtedly Tomtru ( meaning "young bear"), a village dog. Then there was Rakpa, whom we bought from a caravan of mules traveling in Tibet. He was a fine red dog which was given first prize for Foreign Dogs at the Kensington Show some years ago, and was also a winner at Cruft's and the Kennel Club shows. An imported bitch was the black and tan Gyandru. These mastiffs seem quite impervious to cold. On a winter's day with a high wind and the temperature well below fvreezing, they will elect to lie out on a patch of snow if they can find one.
Tibetan mastiffs were shown at the Alexandra Palace in 1875. More than a quarter of a century elapsed before the breed again appeared, when one was brought to England from Lhasa after the Younghusband Mission in 1904. This dog can now be seen in a glass case at the Natural History Museum in London.
The dog known in England and the United States as the Tibetan spaniel has, as far as I know, no special name in Tibet. There seem to be more of them in the Chumbi Valley than in other parts of Tibet. Claude White, who was the first political officer in Sikkim, had a fine kennel of these dogs many years ago. My husband got a very nice dog of this breed when in Lhasa with Sir Francis Younghusband's Expedition in 1904. This dog accompanied him on a journey of more than 1,000 miles through Tibet to Simla and the photograph on page 7 was taken on that expedition while crossing a high, snowy pass. This dog was called "Lhasa" and was given to Mrs Frank Wormald who brought him to England in 1905. He was shown, and won prizes, and died at the age of 18.
I was given six of these dogs, some cream, black and red, but I parted with them and confined my attention to Apsos. Besides the known breeds I have mentioned, there are two other very distinct breeds of Tibetan dogs. The first is the hunting dog, known in Tibet as Sha-Ky i- Kyi being the Tibetan for dog. This dog is about the size of an Airdale. In color it is creamy gray with thick coat. The tail may be carried curled over the back but also sometimes down. The head is long and is a smoky black shading into the creamy gray of the body. The ears hang forward. The dog is used for killing game. He is taken on a leash to within sight of the game - Bharal (wild sheep), must deer, serow etc.. and slipped. When the quarry is pursued, it adopts its natural defense against a wolf by getting into a cliff, where it turns to bay and attempts to butt the dog over the precipice. This is where the quarry is wrong, for the dog does not go in and attempt to kill as a wolf would presumably do, but keeps barking in complete safety and distracts the attention of the quarry while the hunter comes up and shoots the animal at close quarters with his primitive matchlock.
These dogs are very keen sighted, I once saw a pair which spotted a herd of Ovis Ammon at a very great distance, but the owner would not slip them as he explained that there was no suitable place to which the wild sheep could be turned to bay.
I have attempted to keep these dogs. Those obtained when adult where tiresome in attacking strangers. A hunter once told me that they trained these dogs by tying the pup to the mother and letting her go after game when she forgot everything but her hunting. The puppy was dragged and bumped along after her. This made them fierce and keen! Attempts to keep young ones were difficult as I found them delicate. There is no doubts, however, that this distinctive dog would be most attractive and if breed from imported parents would, like the mastiff, be a quiet house dog. There is no trace of wolf in them as the drooping ears testify.
Another very distinctive breed in Tibet is the Kongbo dog, and has never been exported from Tibet, as far as I know. Kongbo is a province in South-eastern Tibet. This dog is on the lines of a schnauzer, with small, prick ears. I have only seen two of these dogs, and both were reddish in color I was once given one by a Tibetan friend. I did not keep him as he was very old and in bad health.
When in Tibet, I kept Finnish spitz and Tibetans, on seeing these, would always point with surprise and say : "Kongkyi" (i.e. Kongbo dog) The Kongkyis I have seen are much heavier in build than Finnish spitz, with coarse hair like a schnauzer and the ears are shorter.
Another very popular dog in Tibet is called Gya-Kyi, which means simply "Chinese dog". This is more like a smooth-haired Pekinges than anything else. I believe this dog to be the Chinese pug. This dog is, I think, the same as, or akin to the Chinese ha-pa dog, which was shown in England a few years ago. His Holiness the late Dalai Lama once gave me one of these dogs which I kept for some time. It was a very nice, affectionate pet. This dog usually has a collar of colored cloth (often red) on which bells are sewn.
I have said that "Apso" in Tibetan means "any long haired dog" Do-Kyi means a "tied dog" or mastiff. The late Dalai Lama, himself, kept many dogs, among them one described as "Do-Kyi-Apso" which may have been cross between a Tibetan mastiff and the dog known in Tibet as the large Apso, which are called Tibetan Terriers in England. My husband took a photograph of this dog. It was the only one that he ever saw of this breed.
Tibetan have, of course, not standardized types. This results is no very specialized, or, as one might perhaps say, unnatural dogs, being bred there. If you wish a dog for a pet in the house, it should be small, lively and faithful; for hunting fast and courageous; for a guard, large, strong and fierce on occasion..
However, breeding is not entirely haphazard as can be seen from the dogs which come from Tibet. After all, the points of breeds were only standardized in England about a hundred years ago, when dogs shows were first held. As in other eastern countries, every Tibetan village contains stray dogs, which make a night's rest almost impossible. Some of these are quite fine dogs, as indeed they must be to stand the rigorous winter climate.
On the Ling-Kor, or sacred road on which pilgrims circumambulate Lhasa, are numbers of dogs of all descriptions which are fed by the pilgrims as an act of piety. This has nothing to do with the dogs being sacred. All talk of sacred dogs bred only in monasteries is nonsense. But the Buddhist theory of reincarnation encourages kindness to animals, especially in a sacred place like Lhasa. It must not be imagined that native dogs are the only ones seen in Tibet. Occasionally one finds pure-breed from England or the Continent in the homes of Tibetans. I know that a former Dalai Lama kept English greyhounds, and his favorite dog, which was always with him in the house, was a dachshund. This goes to prove that we all like things that are not native to our own soil. That is why you might be interested in owing one of the dogs that are indigenous to Tibet, that strangely interesting country which lies up in the clouds.
FOUR BREEDS OF DOGS ARE IN FAR-OFF TIBET
By Margaret Hayes
From the American Kennel Gazette
February 1, 1933
Away beyond the Himalaya Mountains lie the high plateaux of Tibet, the most inaccessible country in the world. Tibet, like her neighbor, Nepal, has an innate distrust of strangers, and yet a human kindliness towards the wanderer. A land of contrasts. Full of strange noises and strange silences, dirt and squalor and Nature in its best and cleanest grandeur. To many who read about her, land of dreams, yeet a place wherein dwells stark reality to those who have traveled there.
Primitive throughout the ages, Nature's stern law of the survival of the fittest remains for man and beast. The ancient religion of the people is a mixture of pagan superstition and a fine ethical code. The rugged mountains are an environment in which the metaphysical flourishes.
Strange land of quaint little people, cheerful and kindly, yet hot tempered when roused. Here, in the heart of this windswept, barren land we find man's friend, the dog. Big dogs and little dogs. Domestic dogs. Dogs for guards. And wild dogs.
Tibet has what no other Asiatic country can claim: four distinct breeds, all kept fairly closely to type. So much so, that the various scraps of information that can be collected from the Tibetans themselves, and others who have been to the county, agree on all the major points, and foreign breeders can have a good idea of the standards of the various breeds. Naturally all the dogs are not perfect in type, though undoubtedly capable of improvement by scientific breeding. The blood is pure, but the Tibetan's idea of breeding does not go beyond like-to-like, and the greater the outcross the better.
During the time I was on the borders of Tibet, I made many inquiries about these breeds, and was greatly helped by meeting several Englishmen who had been to the interior of Tibet, some upper-class Tibetans who kept dogs themselves, and chief of all, Mr. Laden La.
M r. Laden La is a Sikkimese with many Tibetan relation, and was for a long time employed on British Government Service in Tibet. He is also an Honorary General in the Tibetan army and the head of the Buddhists in India. He knows Tibet, its people and their dogs, from the borders of China to India. First of all, for ancient lineage, comes the Tibetan spaniel. This charming little toy is greatly prized, and is only owned by the wealthy. It is kept by the present Dalai Lama, among others. It should be very small, of a light fawny color preferably, with a fluffy, silky coat. Their little faces should be rather "puggy," with small, drop ears, and an alert amusing expression. They should never resemble the papillon as some people seem to think.
They are very active, but not used to walking exercise, as they practically never leave the house in which they were born, unless carried. Owing to the constant society of human beings, these little dogs develop extraordinary intelligence, and learn all kinds of little tricks. They hold the position of court jester in a country of few amusements, and not even cats!
It was quaint to see the utter bewilderment with which a little spaniel of mine met her first cat. It was just after she had been imported into India, and the large black Persian struck her as a fearsome and curious object. She, being two sizes smaller than the cat, the interest was mutual.
Next in size, comes the Lhasa terrier. This little dog has been badly misnamed. First of all, it was called a terrier, then registered as a toy by the Indian Kennel Club, and the Lhasa is neither of these. Although their characters are distinctly terrier-like and fiery, all Lhasa have slightly undershot mouths and a bark like a Pekingese. Certainly not the terrier yap. And as the standard of the breed, drawn up in 1901, gives the height at shoulder as 11 inches, and the weight as 20 pounds, it is obviously not a toy either. But the Lhasa takes its place very adequately and charmingly under non-sporting. They vary considerably in size.
The first aim of the proposed Tibetan Breeds Club will be to get the Lhasa correctly registered.
They are hardy little dogs, with a shaggy four-inch coat, a plumed tail, and a bright alert expression. It is said that they are so affectionate that they will not thrive unless petted and taken a great deal of notice of. My two Lhasas shadow me religiously, and they certainly thrive. All the same, they will more than hold their own in a fight, and they never forget an enemy.
They are all colors, black, grizzle, smoke or sandy, but the most frequently seen is an admixture of these colors with white.
The Apso is scarcer than the Lhasa. It is really the same breed, but owing to the scarceness of these beautiful honey-coloreds, they have been given a label to themselves in the past. Sometimes slightly larger than the Lhasa, they are about the size of a Scottie, and like the spaniel, are only bred by the wealthy families. It is doubtful if they are obtainable anywhere except in Lhasa itself. Long, honey-colored coats, with a dark muzzle and dark ear tips, dark eyes showing through a fringe, they are extremely attractive. The long coat looks more wirey than it feels, and underneath is a thick lining of pure wool, which keeps the dog warm and dry in all weathers. After coming in out of the rain, an Apso shakes himself, and is dry in a few minutes.
These dogs have a distinct mane of long hair around the neck, which gives them a lion-like appearance. The Tibetans call them the "golden lion dogs," and it is significant that their pet names in their Tibetan homes are often "singhi" (lion) or "singtuk" (lion cub).
Besides being pets, they are also valued as luck bringers. It is considered very lucky to have an Apso in the house.
Years ago Apsos were sent every year as presents to the Emperor of China by the Dalai Lama, which proves that they have long been an ancient and valued breed. There is even a theory that they were the original ancestors of the Pekingese, which would date them back to about 500 A.D.
They are very faithful little dogs, intensely attached to their owners, and extremely intelligent. They make excellent guards, having amazingly keen hearing, and wonderful nerves.
Next in size are the dogs called Tibetan terriers by the Kennel Club of India. A standard of points was drawn up in India, in 1931, separating them from the Lhasa with whom they had previously been classified. I understand that the standard is to be changed again, as the weight and height mentioned are not in proportion. Also the dogs have undershot mouths like the Lhasas, and should not be called terriers. Slightly higher on the leg than the lhasa, they are taking little dogs, and the ones imported into England seem to breed true to type. They come from Baltistan and Western Tibet chiefly. As far as I could ascertain they are not bred in the capital itself.
The Tibetan mastiff probably is the fiercest dog in the world, not excepting the Canadian husky. Tibetans prize strength and ferocity as being a mastiff's greatest virtues, and smile at the idea of allowing one in the house or taming it.
These dogs are put on a chain as puppies, and are never taken off. They are fastened up to the entrance to the house, leaving only one possible way in, so it is impossible for a stranger to get past the dog, as a not obvious detour has to be made. Should a stranger go too near, his throat would be torn out in a single spring.
They have small red eyes, and a suspicious, surly disposition. This is possibly due to their life on a chain. A puppy, in other ownership, might prove tractable. But they have been specially bred for ferocity for generations. Four dogs were brought back by the Hon. Mrs. Baily, and last summer were exhibited at Whipsnade Zoo. They are very handsome dogs, being very large and dignified, and suggesting greater strength than any other laarge breed.
Then there are the Corpse dogs, which are the degenerate descendants of the mastiff. These dogs roam wild, driven by Nature and hard circumstances to pack existence, devouring what they can find, like jackals.
They haunt the villages, waiting for garbage to be thrown out, and for the occasional corpse. The dead are laid out on little mounds outside the village, for the dogs to devour. If the dogs eat the body quickly, it is considered a sign of the soul's swift flight to heaven.
These packs have cleared the country of small game, and will even attack "sambur," the Indian elk. I was told the following story by a man who was exploring the passes on the border. Once he was walking up a narrow gully near his camp, when he heard extraordinary sounds, and found a sambur at bay in the rocky bed of the river, with a pack of ten or eleven of the wild dogs worrying him. These dogs are only the size of Irish terriers, and couldn't attempt to pull down the sambur, but they succeeded in getting in odd bites, and gradually the sambur was worn down by loss of blood and weakness. Even if some of the dogs are killed the others are undeterred. It is slow but sure death for any animal to meet the wild dogs. They find a lot of meat on the passes down to India. Every year hundreds of sheep are driven down in caravans, and of these nearly half die of rhododendron poisoning.
All the Tibetan dogs have certain characteristics in common. Very thick coats, great hardiness, and really remarkable intelligence. For instance, a dog bought by a European and used only to the Tibetan language will, in only a weed, understand what is wanted of him. A Lhasa bitch of mine understood the ceremony of tea in the garden by the third day after her arrival, and barked and tugged at my skirt to pull me out of the house when she saw the tea tray being carried across the grass. The same little bitch barked for hours the first night she arrived. We thought it was because she was strange, but next morning found that bullocks had broken into the garden and eaten every flower. She did not bark again for two weeks, and when she did, we rushed out in time to drive off the second invasion.
The chief points that the Tibetans prize in their dogs are coat and color. They prefer all self-colors to the partis, and will not look at a dog with a thin or scanty coat. All the smaller dogs are undershot. Some breeders in India and England have tried to breed them with level mouths, but it has so far resulted in longer muzzles, which is far from an improvement, as the Tibetans like all their dogs to be rather "puggy" faced. They consider this an essential beauty.
Every dog of every breed should have his tail curled over his back and particularly thick hair between the toes. The need for this is obvious when one considers the appalling journeys these dogs have to face.
The journey down to India from Lhasa involves enormous hardships, the cold is intense and any dog, except the minute spaniel, has to tramp and climb, for day after day, in blizzards and driving snow storms, up colossal passes--16,000 feet--and over knife-edged rocks for two while months before he gets down to Sikkim and its steaming hothouse valleys.
The history of Lhasa Apsos in Poland had it's beginning in a half of 70's when Mrs. Maria Rogalska-Kostecka came back from Indian with her new dog a little bitch Bijlli. In 1978 in Parague Bijlli was covered by Komo a dog which was also brought from India. In 1984 Bijlli was covered by her son Abi-Abar Aczu. The puppies were given to an owner's friend's hands. They weren't interested in breeding.
In 1983 Mrs. and Mr. Jarochowsky imported bitch Bay Tatranska Romanca Ch. Pl ( Radwans Donny Carmel x Jilka of Windsor), and in 1983 came U'Kyang de Dorje Chang Pl.Ch. (Rubis de Dorje Chang x Neika de Dorje Chang), dog from France.(property of Mrs. Janina Ordyniec). After this pair were produced two litters.
In 1986 Mrs. Eugenia Fengler imported from Slovakian kennel bitch Nelly Tatranska Romanca (Tru Blu's Continental Man X Tersos Pases Blossom) which in a short time awarded a champion title and inaugurated "Mag 'Fen" kennel. The kennel of Mrs. Magdalena Fengler-Sytniewsky. I must admit that, as a result of obstinacy and consequence of a new breeder, the Lhasa Apso race had been coming more popular than ever before.
The kennel became bigger and bigger in every next year, by new dogs.
From first Nelly and Ch. Feyer v.Batang's (from GDR former) litter, remained one dog, Liang Chin Yogi Mag-Fen (Pl.Ch.). Next, in sequence: bitch Barbie od Stepniakow, (Lian Chin-Yogi's daughter) and Mat-Su Mag-Fen after Fong of The Dutch Meadow and Nelly Tatranska Romanca.
From 1987, yearly, was 1-2 litters in a kennel. Parallels to 1991 bitches from kennel"z Tybetanskiej Eskapady" (Mrs. and Mr. Jarochowsky) were spradically covered. In great majority, the bitches were covered by one reproducer Ch.Liang 'Chin' Yogi Mag-Fen or his sons.
To 1992 Lhasa Apso kennel leant upon a three reproducer's lines.
1. Ch. Y'Kiang de Dorje Chang
2. Ch. Feyer v. Batang by his son Ch.Pl. Liang Chin Yogi Mag-Fen and his grandson Atos od Stepniakow
3. Fong of The Dutch Meadow (also by son Alec Zarete)
The year 1992 could be call: the decisive year, for lhasa apso kennel. Since this year have imported a few very valuable dogs with an excellent origin.
- for breeding Czuo-Czao: a bitch from Czech. * Nangy Nanty z Kybely /Ch.Bihari's Newille x Bo-den-hoff's Anisette) Saxonspring, Orlane, Kai-la-sha lines.
- for breeding Mag-Fen: a bitch Ch.Pl.OLIVIA z Kybely /Bihari's Neville x Bo-den-hoff's Anisette /
- for breeding Sundara kennel :
dog Chakpori's Wicky (Int.Ch. Chakpori's Demion x Chakpori's Amrita)
* a bitch GalaTatranska Romanca (unrelated with previous imports from this kennel) Dolsa, Suntory, Arkay lines
*dog Karlos Nice (Ch. El Gunga Din's Nin-JA x Bria Nice)
- for breeding Mag-Fen : dog Quizmaster z Kybely (Saxonsprings Meri Man x Int.Ch. Bo-den-hoff's Gloria)
- for breeding Ksiezycowa Sylena : a bitch Orlane Fool's Gold (Orlane Impodent of Windwick x Orlane Bubblicious)
- for breeding Sundara kennel: a bitch Royal Charm z Kybely (Int.Ch. Bo-den-hoff's Chicago Pal x Bo-den-hoff's Anisette) Saxonspring, Orlane lines
- for breeding Ksiezycowa Sylena : dog Orlane Bonson (Sharbil One Man Show x T-Ritz Winks-N-Stuff)
- for breeding Sundara : dog O'Jataka vom Tschibu (Int.Ch. Ke'Tha-Ju vom Tschibu x Ozmillion's Free Style) Kai-la-sha, Everglo, Showa,... lines
In 1994 two bitches from Mag 'Fen and Czua-Czao kennels, were covered in Czech Int.Ch. Bo-den-hoff's Chicago Pal (Int.Ch. Bo-den-hoff's Tiger Rag x Int.Ch. Saxonsprings Shady Lady) and in 1996 bitch from I-Waldi kennel was covered in Czech by dog Int.Ch.Jenirox Pedler (Beddis Knock Out For Ardquin x Jenirox Gorgeus Gussie).
Besides that imports, a few dogs and bitches with different origin were brought from Czech and Slovakia, these dogs in a short time will be present on dog 'show and will come in kennel. Hitherto, Lhasa Apso kennel came across difficulties and Lhasa Apso race couldn't conquer as big popularity as Shih-tzu eg.
Taking into consideration more numerous numbers of dogs and numbers of lines and origins we could believe in development this breed in Poland.
Dogs and bitches which have won
Champion of Poland title , between (1981-97)
BRITISH DOGS AND THEIR POINTS, SELECTION AND PREPARATION by W.D. Drury, 1903 "Of still more importance than either to English Fanciers is the Lhasa Terrier, an interesting little breed, formerly found under the inappropriate name of Bhuteer Terrier. Lhasa is the chief home of these Terriers, by which the fancy in Northern India are classified as Tibetan. Until Mr. Lionel Jacobs enlightened the fanciers in this country by means of his very practical contributions to the Kennel press on the dogs of India, but very little was known here, and much confusion reigned, especially when, as in the case of the Lhasa, TWO DISTINCT TYPES OBTAIN. Though desirable acquisitions, the true Lhasas are by no means abundant even in that capital, and correspondingly expensive.
As stated above, TWO DISTINCT TYPES OF LHASA EXIST one (the true) approaching the Skye Terrier in character, but with the tail carried over the back, as is usual with Tibetan dogs. Mr. Clarke describes the Lhasa as "very affectionate and attached, and do not thrive unless petted and taken a good deal of notice of. They are very jealous, and desperate fighters when their blood is up. When fighting, they are as determined to kill as any Fox or Irish Terriers, and always attach a vulnerable spot.
Mr. Lionel Jacobs, when dealing with the breed in the Kennel Gazette speaks in the highest praise of the bitch Marni, owned by Colonel Walsh, and compares her in type and general appearance to Mrs. McLaren Morrison's Kepvich Tuko, that had just won first in the Bhuteer Class at the Crystal Palace show.
(NONSPORTING) BOOK by Herbert Compton, 1904, "The fourth lapdog in my foreign illustrations is a Lhasa (or, as it was at one time called, a Bhutan ) terrier. Although it does not rightly belong to this section I include it, partly for convenience' sake, as a longhaired Asiatic pet dog; but also because so high an authority as Mr. Lionel Jacobs M.I.C.E., Government Official in the Punjab, and official doglover, an organizer of the Northern India Kennel Club, gives me sort of license to do so in his remarks on the breed, published in THE DOG OWNERS ANNUAL for 1901 "The Tibetan, Bhutan or Lhasa Terrier, is now usually allowed to be a distinct breed, and perhaps of all others it merits the distinction. But even in this case there is a tendancy for the strain to merge into one Tibet type (which in its ramifications and graduations, probably included all the different Central Asian dogs, and from the Tibetan Mastiff to the Chow of China).
There are Tibetan Terriers as large as Russian Poodles, and have others almost as small as Maltese. A few would appear to have Terrier instincts, but many have the habits of the large dog of Tibet. The Lhasa Terrier has now (i.e.:1900) found a foothold in India and is bred there, though not in considerable numbers. At one time it was only to be obtained in its purity at Lhasa, and the breed was once, it is said, jealously guarded by the Bhuddist priests. But, traders finding a demand among the dog loving public of India, contrived to convey specimens to Leh and Kashmir, westward, and to Darjeeling, eastward.
Of these little creatures there are to be two contrary types, the terrier and the spaniel. At the Muree (an Indian Hill Station, bordering Kashmir) dog show of September 1900, there was for the first time a separate class granted for this breed, and both types were conspicuously represented. The terrier type (though all Tibetan dogs have the tail curling strongly over the back), strongly resembles the Skye Terrier.
Mrs. McLaren Morrison, (circa 1904): "The breed of Lhasa terriers can undoubtedly be brought to great perfection, but we need new stock in England, although there are a great many unrelated specimens in the country. The dogs are registered as a separate breed now by The Kennel Club, the work of many years insistence on the part of ardent fanciers, including Mrs. Francis, who has greatly assisted the breed by importing specimens, and owns a beautiful pack of the little animals. The points of the Lhasa Terrier are not yet clearly defined, saving in the mind of the expert; but the judge and the breeder know it well. I would like to see much more attention paid to size, to which the natives of the country they come from attach the greatest importance. There should really be two classes for them, over and under a certain weight.
They are most lovable little fellows; clever as performing dogs, devoted companions, exceedingly quaint, and with a charm all their own. Bhutan, the terrier I imported from the Himalayas, and the pioneer and only Champion in the breed, was a splendid dog, not only in appearance but in character. He always begged at shows, sitting up for hours in that position. Her Majesty (then the Princessof Wales) remarked once on seeing him so engaged, "That little dog is begging to leave the show." But Bhutan did not mind shows. Poor little fellow! He fell at his post, so to speak, he contracted Distemper, at an Earls Court show, where he was being exhibited, and at the same time enjoying himself in begging for the Hospital Fund. Contrary to his usual alert custom he kept sinking down into a lying position, but after a little rest would scramble up again to the sittingup posture; and with the hand of death on him, he "kept his end up to the last", and then went home to die, to the infinite sorrow of those who loved and admired him.
Poor little Bhutan! His native solitudes, under the shadow of the everlasting snows of Mount Everest and Kinchinjunga, are a far cry from Earl's Court. Let us hope that Bhutan was carried back in spirit to his Mongolian home, to sleep in peace in those pure, high, exhilarating altitudes, where the flowers and the snow divide the year. For over that little terrier, deathstruck himself, begging for the sick and dying, and a wanderer here from so distant clime, soft should the snow lie, and sweetly bloom the flowers."
OUR DOGS of September 30th 1905: "Mop" would be the shortest description of a Lhasa Terrier, and we should say the best. But he is not a "Mop" in disposition. Trained to quard the worldly goods of the Bhuteer, he is sagacious, courageous, loving and faithful, even unto death.
THE CASSELLS NEW BOOK OF THE DOG by Robert Leighton, 1907, "An interesting native of the tableland of Central Asia is the Lhasa Terrier, of which very few have as yet been bred in Europe. In appearance this terrier, with his ample and shaggy coat, reminds one of an illkept Maltese dog, or perhaps even more of the dog of Havana. In the best specimens the coat is long and straight and very profuse, with a considerable amount of hair over the eyes and about the long, pendant ears. The colors are white and black, light grey, iron grey, brown or buff and white. In size they vary but smaller are considered the more valuable. The Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison's "India", imported from Tibet, was perhaps the best of the breed hitherto seen in England. This typical bitch has left many descendents who are well known on the show bench, Most of the Asiatic breeds of dogs have the reputation of being taciturn, and probably the character is true of them in their native land, but the English bred Lhasa Terrier is an alert and confiding little companion, extraordinarily wise and devoted."
Hon. Mrs. A. McLaren Morrison, 1908, THE KENNEL ENCYCLOPEDIA, Dogs of India and Tibet: "The Lhasa Terrier should be very shaggy in coat, with a general appearance of untidiness; the coat should be rough looking, but really silky in its texture; his head of moppy hair completely obliterating his eyes. The tail should be plume like, carried over the back, and almost hidden in the denseness of his coat. The legs should be quite straight and short, so that the body is low to the ground. In color he may be white and black, grey, silver, or coffee colored, etc; any color is permissable. Size, smallness in size ought certainly to be valued, but as yet we have too few specimens in England, to decide what the limit of weight or size should be. Let us hope that this (one of the quaintest of dogs) has come to stay, and to appear in our shows in ever increasing numbers, and that enterprising fanciers will venture to bring new specimens to our shores".
OUR DOGS, June 5th 1914, Mr. Will Hally, "Mrs. Wilmot Corfield's Dooma has the honor of defeating the Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison's Ch. Little Dargee, who is, by the by, in his tenth year."
THE DOG BOOK by James Watson, U.S.A. 1916. "The latest European introductions in toy dogs are the Lhasa Terrier and the Tibet Spaniel, neither of which has yet reached America, hence we are unable to write of them with any personal knowledge. As they will undoubtedly be brought to this country ere long a few words by way of introducing them seems advisable and for the following we are indebted to the Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrison, the acknowledged authority in England on Central Asiatic dogs.
"In the cold tableland of Central Asia, nature provides her creatures with ample clothing. We find there in the canine breeds the grand Tibet Mastiff one mass of gigantic coat and we find too the little Lhasa Terrier well protected against the piercing winds whose way no cities and structures of Western Civilization yet have barred. How the Lhasa Terrier lives in his own country, what he does, how he is kept we know but little of. One of these little Asiatics which has had the honor to be called the standard dog by the experts, was purchased out of a Bhuteer's market cart; unkept, unwashed, uninviting, and loath to be civilized he valiantly guarded his vegetables, till made reluctantly to understand that he was born for higher things and that a show career beyond the waters awaited him. Another was brought down from the very interior sent by a Tibetan and accompanied by an attendant wreathed in tourquoise. Yet another was carried across the saddle for miles and miles. The character of the Lhasa Terrier is true and confiding. Not taciturn, as of some other Asiatic breeds. I am inclined, however, to think that this is really only correct of the English bred Lhasa Terrier; for the little fellow who came from the market cart was by no means friendly, and for years devoted himself only to one person whose room and chattels he would defend to grim death. The Lhasa's coat should be long and straight, very profuse and shaggy. Feet large and wide, to tread the snows of the Uplands. The size varies a good deal, but the really small ones, though up to recently rarely bred in this country are most valued on their own and fetch long prices in the East. For the wily Asiatic is fully aware of the value.of the really good specimens, and the inhabitant of the market cart, Tuko, had to be carefully quarded whilst in his own country or would promptly have disappeared.
Their colors are: white and black, iron grey, light grey, buff, brown or buff and white, etc. They have now by 1906 found many admirers in England, and there is every reason to believe that the shaggy lovable pet of the Lhamas will become equally appreciated, if alas not equally plentiful, in this part of the world as in his own mystic home. It has been the good fortune of the writer (the Hon. Mrs. McLaren Morrision) to see authentic photographs of the dogs of Tibet taken by the Grand Lama himself. The Lhasa Terrier is but one of several breeds known in Tibet, but the country is yet too much closed for the naturalist to give us deep information in all varieties.
OUR DOGS, June 8th 1916, Mr. Hally, (At the L.K.A. show) "the Lhasa Terriers were an unusually large group, the winner in them being Mrs. Corfield'sDooma."
OUR DOGS, December 12th 1919, Mr. Hally, "I wish that the Tibet Spaniels and the Lhasa Terriers were more numerous".
OUR DOGS May 20th 1921 "Foreign dog events are rather rare in these modern days and if there are some regrettable eliminations from this year's schedule of the L.K.A. and one misses the Tibetan Spaniels, the Lhasa Terrier and the Gazelle Hounds of prewar times. . .," so due to lack of support and numbers the Lhasa Terriers lost their classes at this big prestigious Championship show.
OUR DOGS October 7th 1921. "The war period seems to have put an end to all the publicity which the Tibetan Spaniel, and likewise the Lhasa Terrier, at one time enjoyed. If Tibetans progress was never very noteworthy, it was undoubted for a time, and ten or eleven years ago, the breed's promise was so encouraging that the Hon. Mrs McLaren Morrison, to whom these dogs owed practically all their British appreciation, suggested the formation of a specialist club. The Kennel Club recognition and the coveted championships were even on the horizon; but that is the furthest that Tibetans ever got, and it does not look as if they would ever get as far again."
OUR DOGS February 22nd 1929, Cruft's Dog Show : "But the Lhasa Terrier came out in force, and here was a "trio of importeds", but as these were three owned by Mrs. Greig and known now to be what is known as Tibetan Terriers we see the first possible confrontation between the two breeds given the name Tibetan or Lhasa Terriers!
OUR DOGS of August 23rd 1929 . . ."Mrs. McLaren Morrison has a brace of quite exquisite Lhasa Terrier bitches, about due to be released from quarantine; one of them has already won top honors in India, where the experts declared her to be most perfect. She is almost a selfwhite. It is rather sad to think that the fascinating Lhasas have lost in these modern days the Challenge Certificates which were once their lot; had those supreme honors been still available the beautiful Tashi would certainly have been a champion by now, as he has proved a great winner in his not yet long career. Tommo, which is so like his imported and much lamented dam (which died when giving birth to her second litter), is, I think, the most typical Lhasa in this country, with his short legs, immense paws, heavy coat, lovely shape, and massive head. Tommo's brother, an allblack, has not yet been shown, as he exhibits a true Oriental quiet obstinacy as soon as the question of a leash is broached. Although Lhasas have lost their Challenge Certificate rights, I am convinced that these will yet be regained, as never before have we had the Lhasa numbers which are now in this country; while quality is higher than is has ever previously been."
THE WORLD ANNUAL for 1929 The Indian Toy Breeds, L.M. Medley (Editor of the Indian Kennel Gazette) : "Both the Lhasa Terrier and the Tibetan Spaniel have been exhibited at shows in India for over 30 years, but probably because they are indigenous, very few people have really gone in for cultivating either breed. Throughout the Himalayas, from the Hindu Kush to Mount Everest and Darjeeling, there are about eleven distinct breeds of dogs indigenous to the country: from the massive Tibetan Bhooteahs and Gaddi Dogs down to the Toys, which include Lhasa Terriers and Tibetan Spaniels, names which we have given to the distinctive varieties.
The Lhasa Terrier is quite a different type of dog, and might shortly be described as a diminutive Skye Terrier for its coat, and the most popular coloring in its native land, which is dark smoke color, in fact the natives very commonly name the petdog of the household of this variety "Dhooma" which you will recognize is a corruption of the Hindu word for smoke.
The Lhasa Terrier is very much smaller than the Skye Terrier, and should have a very much shorter back in proportion to its size. The typical colors are smoke, black, white, fawn or khaki.: dust colored as the natives call it. The Lhasa Terrier has a typical terrier head, and is thoroughly game and fights to kill, and with its sharp clean teeth usually attacks in a vital spot, but he is not really quarrelsome.
Sir Lionel Jacobs in 1901, or thereabouts, tried to put together a standard of points, and obtained measurements and particulars from owners of these two breeds, but was able only to get one photograph of a pair of black and white Lhasa Terriers, the property of Mr. Clarke of the Khedda department. The photograph showed a typical pair, except for the coloring, which was mentioned above should be selfcolored and not particolored; although personally my dogs which I exhibited in Calcutta about twenty years ago, were black and white, and I think, from an English breeders's point of view, this marking would be more popular than any of the self colors given above. For size, the Lhasa Terrier may be taken as the same as that of the Maltese Poodle, though not quite so diminutive as the smallest of this breed, exhibited at home nowadays, Old breeders in England will remember of the size of the Maltese in the 'nineties, and the earlier part of the present century. The coat should not be more harsh than that of the Skye Terrier."
OUR DOGS of August 22nd 1930. "I do not know if the Indian Kennel Club's decision to separate the Lhasa Terriers into two distinct breeds, calling the 1415 inch dog the Tibetan Terrier, and the 8 inch dog the Lhasa Terrier, will have any bearing on the Lhasa breed in this country or affect our Lhasa classification in any way. In the meantime I am making no comment on this except that there is a considerable amount of doubt and misunderstanding (not to add disagreement) creeping into Lhasa affairs just now; quite unnecessarily, I think, but all the same it is a subject which will have to be tackled sooner or later."