Computer Operating Systems

Urban Voice -- Instructor: Lenny Bailes

Day 10 Agenda

    1.   Review Day 9 Agenda fill-ins, A+ Chapter 2 concepts,
          real mode vs. protected mode, starting applications, answers to questions 6-25, and
          chapter 2 vocabulary.

          For DOS and Windows 9.x, the three types of logical primary memory are ___________,

          _________________, and __________________.

         For ROM BIOS and RAM to communicate with the CPU, specific addresses must be assigned
         to them.

         Windows 9.x loads older 16-bit device drivers from _________, __________,
         or ___________ to be backward compatible with DOS and Windows 3.x

    2.  Discuss A+ Chapter 3 concepts 

    A hard/cold boot starts the computer when the user _____________________

          b) A warm/soft boot restarts the computer when ________________________

          c) _______________________ is a technology that allows a computer's BIOS, motherboard,
             or an operating system to automatically detect hardware devices and assign them to IRQs and
             I/O addresses.

         FAT File System

          d) The FAT in FAT file system stands for ______ __________ _________.

          e) The FAT file system divides a floppy disk into concentric circles called ___________. Each of
              these circles is divided into segments called ______________.

           f) The basic FAT unit used to store files is called a ____________, composed of one or more

          g) The newer version of the FAT file system used by default in Windows 98 is called _______.
              (This file system allows the disk to contain clusters that use fewer sectors, optimizing the
              storage of smaller files on the disk.)

          h) The older version of the FAT file system used by MS DOS 6.22 and the original version of
             Windows 95 is called _________.

          i) Under MS DOS 6.22 (and earlier), filenames are limited to ____ characters that can't include
             special symbols or spaces.. Usually ___  characters are used to assign a name and ___
             characters are used for a file extension.

          j) Under Windows 95 and later versions of Windows, filenames can include spaces and special
              characters and may be up to ___ characters in length.

       Partitions and Formatting

             Unlike a floppy disk, a hard disk (fixed disk) must be divided into one or more partitions, in
             order to hold files, programs, or an operating system.

             Both floppy and hard disks must be formatted for an operating system to be able to read them.

             Most hard disks contain one partition, called a _____________ partition with one logical drive
              in it lettered ___. Under Microsoft operating systems, a hard disk may also contain an
              __________ partition with additional logical drives.

     Computer startup  

             The computer boot process can be divided into four main steps _______________,

              ___________________, _________________, ____________________.

    3.  Finish inventory sheets and disk partitioning in the lab.

        a) Use FDISK to create a primary partition that's one-half the size of your disk
        b) Reboot the computer and format the partition with the command:
              A:\> Format C: (do not use the /S parameter).
        c)   After the partition is formatted, can DOS read the hard disk now, when you type DIR C:\?
              Do you see any files on the disk? ___________
        d)   After the previous step, reboot the computer from the Win98 Startup Floppy.
               In order to load the DOS operating system, the computer must load three files:
               _________, __________, and _________.  Do you think the computer will boot from the            C-drive now, when you remove the Windows 98 Startup disk and restart? ______    Try it
               and see.
         e)   You can make the C-drive you've created bootable, by using the SYS command on the
               Win98 Startup floppy.
    Boot the computer from the startup floppy again and issue the
                command:   A:\> SYS A: C:
         f)     Remove the Win98 Startup disk and reboot the computer. Does it boot to the C-prompt?

         g)    Issue the command DIR C:. What file(s) do you see listed? _______________.
                 The other system files copied to the C-drive by the SYS command are hidden. To
                view them, issue the command: DIR C:\  /ah

        h)    Use the FDISK utility on your Win98 Startup disk to create a D-Drive partition on the hard
               disk. This takes two steps.

               Choose option ___ on the FDISK menu to create a partition, followed by option __ on the
                next menu to create an Extended Partition.

              After you've created the Extended partition, create a DOS logical drive inside of the partition
              and have it use the remainder of the available space on the drive.

             Press ESC to back out of the FDISK menus and exit to the command-prompt. Can the
             computer read and recognize your new D-drive yet? ____. What do you need to do in
             order to get the computer to recognize it?          ___________________________________________________________________


    4. In order to install Windows 98, we need to remove the DOS system files from the
        C-drive, so that they won't interfere with the CD setup. There are two ways we can
        accomplish this:

     a) Simple, but slow: reformat the C-drive without the /S parameter (Format C:)
      b) Faster, but more complicated: Boot from the Win98 Startup disk and use the DOS ATTRIB
              command to unhide  the system files on Drive C, then delete them.

              A:\> ATTRIB -r -h -s c:\*.*
              C:\>DEL *.*



    Answer Chapter 2 review questions, 26-34 on p.75-76

    Tomorrow, if all goes well, we will install Windows 98SE in the lab. Review the class handout, and Andrews, A+ in Depth, pages 499-504

    Continue reading A+ Chapter 3, pages 81-105 to learn about Understanding the Boot Process and the Command line..

    CPUs  (We'll get to this when we're done building the computers)

    Study Meyers Lab 2.1, if you have the manual.

    See MCMCSE Study Guide- Processors for more notes on CPUs

    See ( for a near-complete listing of Intel CPUs.
    See Erols com ( and CPU Socket and Slot Criteria for pictures and info about CPUs, sockets, and slots.



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