Atomic and stellar model of ferman

Fernando Mancebo Rodríguez ---- Personal page

You can see summaries of all my studies in the following web pages:

Model of Cosmos ||| Atomic model||| Speed of Forces ||| Magnet : N-S Magnetic Polarity
Radial coordinates||| Theory on the physical and mathematical sets ||| Planar angles: Trimetry ||| Properties of division
Spherical Molecules ||| Metaphysics (Spanish) ||| In Genetic Heredity
Rotary Engine ||| Andalusian Roof Tile
ARTICLES: The Garbage Triangle : Quantum mechanics, Relativity and Standard Theory ||| Nuclei of galaxies

Drawings and summary of the atom model of ferman --also stellar model

In this page you can see drawings and summary of my model of atom. Whole explanation in my model of Cosmos (link up)


Characteristic of the classic atomic models (Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr) and of mine.

The current quantum pattern is not exposed because I understand that it lacks the logical and scientific quality and it could be necessary to spend most of this article in the critic to its postulates.

Dalton.- 1808 -------- [HOTLIST]

For Dalton, matter is constituted by tiny particles, the atoms.
Each element type is constituted by its own class of atoms, being these of equal mass and properties.
The atoms of different elements have properties and characteristic also different.
Therefore Dalton, although he doesn't expose the structure and outline of atoms, he begins to define us the properties and characteristic of the same ones.

Thomson.- 1897 ------[HOTLIST]

Thomson already introduced us in the electric properties of atoms, considering that these were constituted by a positive charge that took incrusted to several negative charges, the electrons.

Rutherford.- 1911----[HOTLIST]

Rutherford already began to define a space structuring of atoms, linking it a little to our solar model.
He checked, by means of the emission of particles, that atoms were not compact and their electrons (charged negatively) would possibly rotate around an atomic nucleus (charged positively).
Atom would have this way a positive nucleus and a negative bark made up of electrons.

Bohr.- 1913-----------[HOTLIST]

Bohr proposed that electrons would rotate around the nucleus in well defined levels, and basing on the studies of Planck, he proposed different energy levels for electrons according to the orbit where they were located.
Nevertheless, the same as Einstein was not able to finish his unification theory, Bohr didn't achieve a structural theory that explained these energy levels in all atoms, and alone it was good for the hydrogen atom.

Because well, until here the previous classic theories.
Now I will expose my atomic model a little more widely due to it has many concepts that give validity to the classic theories in opposition to the quantum mechanics model.

Ferman.- 1975 --[HOTLIST]

The characteristics of my atomic model are supplemented with those of my model of Cosmos that studies fundamental principle of the same one, as they are space and time, energy, gravity, magnetic force, matter, and of course, the formation of atoms, stars, etc.
But bounding us to the pattern of atoms, the bases and characteristics are the following ones:

1.- Atoms non alone are similar to the solar systems, but rather they have the same principles, elements, structure, etc. They represent different levels of the structure of the Cosmos in fact, but with the same properties, elements, forces, etc.
Therefore any mass, matter or celestial body that we see at stars' level has its equal or equivalent at atomic level, and vice versa.

2.- Atoms are built and maintained by two types of forces: Gravity and the Magnetic force.

Foundation: Gravity is the cosmic energy (The union of space and time) that alone can act as fields of force with concentric direction. (See cosmic model)

--Gravity coheres to the nuclear masses, electrons, particles, etc.
When the atomic nuclei rotate on themselves, they create the gravitational layers around the nucleus, in which, different magnetic orbits (with its electron) are located, each one of those at different distance of the nucleus.
In this sense, this eliminates the uncertainty of Bohr, since each layer has different orbits and therefore different levels.

Foundation: Magnetic force is the energy distribution force in the Cosmos to get the same density of energy in all places of space.

--The magnetic force (taken place by the nucleus) creates the magnetic orbits, which attract, locate and maintain to electrons.
Therefore, electrons are subjected to the force and classification of the magnetic fields that the nucleus produces.
For it, not alone electrons don't consume energy when rotating around the nucleus, but rather they cannot escape of their orbit because the magnetic force of the nucleus impedes this possibility.
This case, we have to take in mind that the magnetic potential of attraction resides and acts by mean of the orbits of atoms, but not on the central nucleus directly.
Therefore the orbits with magnetic potential are similar and act as vacuums or holes of "low pressures and density of energy" that attract to electrons to be stuffed and to find their necessary magnetic balance.

This way, the nuclei create magnetic orbits, and later on, the magnetic orbits attract and maintain electrons on them.
This is due to the magnetic force is an energy (and matter) redistribution force, antagonist to gravity.
Alone the gravity potential acts directly from the central nucleus.

3.---The dimensions (volume) of atoms are determined by the magnetic fields and orbits that the magnetic force of the nucleus takes place.
Being the magnetic force (see magnetic force in my model of Cosmos) a force of energy rebalance through the Cosmos, and its mission is to get an equality (same density) of energy in all the atoms, and for it, when bigger it is the atomic nucleus—bigger it will be the total volume of the atom to get that equality of density (density = mass/volume).

4.---The energy levels that Bohr believed resided in electrons, because this theory contemplates it in a different way. It is the whole atom by means of its magnetic force that manages the potentials and energy levels and that in fact emits or captures energy when this energy is needed it to maintain the half density of energy explained previously.
--This way if an atom acquires a new electron, immediately its volume increases and it needs to acquire great quantity of energy to conserve its half density.
--If the atom gives an electron then its volume diminishes and the atom must to give energy to continue maintaining its half density.
--If to an atom we give great quantity of energy, this acquires it and to maintain the half density of energy its volume must to be increased, displacing to the last electron to an external orbit.
But it is the magnetic potential of the atom that makes it, but not electrons.
This explains the different longitudes of wave of energy emission from atoms, because all they have different magnetic potential according to their dimension and energetic circumstance.

5.- So the atomic nuclei, electrons, neutrinos, etc. all they are single matter that is cohered by the gravitational force. This matter (as any one) also produces their magnetic fields according to its dimensions.
In the atomic nuclei there are not electric charges that repel themselves, neither strong interaction that attracts them; alone single matter with mutual attractive gravity force. ** Strong force is gravity. see explanation at the end.
Therefore the atomic nuclei are single mass or matter that produces their fields and magnetic orbits to their surroundings where electrons are attracted and maintained.
Defined atomic particles don't exist inside of the nuclei (protons, neutrons, quarks, gluons, etc.), uniquely the total atomic mass that produces the mentioned fields of forces.
If we destroy an atomic nucleus we can obtain multiple pieces of nuclear matter that will always be different in size, gravitational potential, magnetic potential, etc.
Inside of the nuclei, matter is one and only one, without any type of electric charges and with common fields of forces (gravity and magnetic fields).
Outside of the nuclei, any matter piece acquires its own gravity field and its own magnetic field, and this way, its own faculty of acquiring consort particles (Like the nucleus acquire electrons).
In the same sense, each electron (lepton) is different to any other one and creates its own magnetic fields (according to its dimensions) to their surroundings, where captures and maintains to its neutrinos.

6.- This way, the Cosmos is structured in successive levels in exponential order through the Fourth dimension, being formed any level by the sum of other smaller ones. (For example, stars are the sum of many atoms; atoms by the sum of many sub-atoms, etc.)
In this sense between a level and the following one a Lr relationship of values exists that is 6,28 x 10E22 in space and time.
This way a stellar meter (or terrestrial) is equal to 6,28 x 10E22 atomic meters.
On the other hand the speeds (space / time) logically they are same in all the levels.
This way the speed of an electron is the same one than the speed of a planet, and the speed of any atomic particle is the same than the speed of any equivalent stellar particle.
For it gravity, as representation of the speed and acceleration of the cosmic energy, is same in all the levels, being therefore the gravity on a stars similar to the gravity on an equivalent atomic nucleus.
This way the gravity in the atoms is what we denominate Strong Force and it is the only force that maintains cohered the masses of the nuclei in the different levels.


* * Besides it, I include in the drawing my formula for obtaining the dimensions of atoms and the situation of its electrons. In this formula Aw is the atomic weight of the atom in question.

Basic formula for the atomic structuring.

The following one is the basic formula for the structuring of the gravitational systems (atoms, stars, etc.), which contains the structural parameters of the same ones such as mass of atoms, atomic radii, atomic density.
At the same time the formula defines us the energy balance or coefficient of density that must have atoms according to the Law of Universal Balance that tells us: "All the gravitational systems (atoms, stars, etc.) tend to have the same energy density (coefficient of density)".
Therefore any atom tends to complete the equality between its mass-energy and its volume multiply by its atomic density, just as it shows us the formula.
In this case, if an atom gives or acquires an electron and therefore, it diminishes or increases its volume, this atom must also give or to acquire energy particles for rebalancing its energy state.


Atomic Density.- This way, we can put the density of atoms as: [HOTLIST]

Other more exact formula for obtaining the atomic radius it would be:


And the most easy one:


Note.- The current gauge system of the atomic radii is erroneous because it doesn't keep in mind the inter-atomic vacuum that separates atoms among them, depending on the saturation of their last gravitational layer.
(i. e. the lithium atom with three electrons cannot has its radius three times bigger than the neon atom with 10 electrons).
In gasses this inter-atomic vacuum is very big.


Another topic relative to the dimensions of atoms is the Molecular Porosity that you can see in my model of Cosmos.


Inter-atomic vacuum: As we see in the drawing, the inter-atomic vacuum is the distance or void among atoms that it is caused by the repulsion among them due to its gravitational polarity, either electropositive (i.e. alkalis) or electronegative (i.e. halogens).
The electropositive polarity has more repulsion potential than the electronegative one, as we can see in the drawing.
The inter-atomic vacuum summed to the diameter of atoms gives us the separation Sp among the atomic nuclei.

Besides the gravitacional polarity, the magnetic state of saturation of atoms and molecules also propitiates and produces the interatomic vacuum.
For example, the saturation of the magnetic and gravitational layers of the noble gases drives them to take a “ideal” state of balance that eliminates any “desire or necessity” of approach toward other elements.
In this sense, the acquisition and complementation of atoms and molecules with the enough quantity of particles (energy) makes that these acquire successive states of magnetic balance and changes of state (solid, liquid, gassy) go leaving every time bigger interatomic vacuum among them.
* * We remember that magnetism (magnetic force) is synonymous of similar allotment of energy through space, with which when more it is the content of energy of any material -- more will be the state of repulsion among its atoms and molecules.


As we have seen, the gravitational polarity causes some repulsion among the chemical elements producing some void among atoms that we call inter-atomic vacuum.
The inter-atomic vacuum influences a lot in the properties of these chemical elements, as in their density, hardness, crystallization, etc. besides the properties that already have due to their gravitational polarity.
For a summary of these properties, I have divided the width of the gravitational layers in three areas (A, B and C), being the areas A and C of wide inter-atomic vacuum and being the area B of little inter-atomic vacuum. (See drawing)

Area A and C:
In these areas the inter-atomic vacuum is very big and atoms are very separate some of other, giving them the following properties.
--Great reactivity
--Little density.
--Plasticity: soft, spreading,

Area B:
In this area the inter-atomic vacuum is minimum and atoms usually join according to its magnetic polarity N-S acquiring properties contrary to the previous ones.
--Little or null reactivity.
--Great density.
--Hardness; tendency to the crystallization; brittle materials,

Below, I expose table of atomic measures:
Separation is the distance among atomic nuclei in any material.


Separation and diameter are given in amstrongs.

Symbol ---- Name -------- A.Weight --- Density ------ Weight (10-24g )--- Coef. Porosity -- Separation --- Diameter
H Hydrogen 1 0,00009 1,67 Gas 33,37 1
He Helium 4 0,000178 6,64 Gas 33,37 1,26
------------ ------------ ----- Second -- Gravity - Layer --- 8 ------------- ------------- -------------
Li Lithium 7 0,535 11,62 0,72 2,79 1,37
Be Beryllium 9 1,848 14,94 0,27 2,01 1,45
B Boron 11 2,460 18,26 0,25 1,95 1,49
C Carbon 12 2,267 19,92 0,30 2,07 1,51
N Nitrogen 14 0,001251 23,24 Gas 33,37 1,55
O Oxigen 16 0,001429 26,56 Gas 33,37 1,59
F Fluorine 19 0,0017 31,54 Gas 33,37 1,63
Ne Neon 20,19 0,000899 33,51 Gas 33,37 1,65
------------ ------------ ----- Third -- Gravity - Layer --- 8 ------------- ------------- -------------
Na Sodium 23 0,968 38,18 1,33 3,41 1,68
Mg Magnesium 24 1,738 39,84 0,77 2,84 1,70
Al Aluminum 27 2,781 44,82 0,54 2,53 1,73
Si Silicon 28 2,330 46,48 0,67 2,71 1,75
P Phosphorus 31 1,823 51,46 0,94 3,04 1,77
S Sulfur 32 1,960 53,12 0,90 3,00 1,78
Cl Chlorine 35,5 0,00314 58,93 Gas 33,37 1,81
Ar Argon 39,95 0,00178 66,32 Gas 33,37 1,85
------------ ------------ ----Fourth -- Gravity - Layer --- 18 ------------- ------------- -------------
K Potassium 39 0,856 64,74 2,54 4,23 1,84
Ca Calcium 40 1,550 66,40 1,44 3,50 1,86
Sc Scandium 44,95 2,985 74,64 0,84 2,93 1,88
Ti Titanum 47,87 4,51 79,49 0,59 2,60 1,90
V Vanadium 50,94 6 84,59 0,47 2,41 1,92
Cr Chromium 52 7,19 86,35 0,40 2,29 1,93
Mn Manganese 54,94 7,21 91,93 0,42 2,33 1,95
Fe Iron 56 7,900 92,96 0,40 2,28 1,96
Co Cobalt 58,93 8,9 97,86 0,37 2,23 1,97
Ni Nickel 59 8,800 97,94 0,37 2,23 1,98
Cu Copper 63 8,900 104,58 0,39 2,27 2,00
Zn Zinc 65,4 7,14 108,60 0,51 2,48 2,01
Ga Galium 70 5,904 116,20 0,66 2,70 2,03
Ge Germanium 72,64 5,323 120,63 0,76 2,83 2,04
As Arsenic 75 5,727 124,50 0,73 2,79 2,05
Se Selenium 79 4,810 131,14 0,91 3,01 2,07
Br Bromine 80 3,119 132,80 1,42 3,49 2,08
Kr Krypton 83,80 0,00374 139,11 Gas 33,37 2,09
------------ ------------ ----- Fifth -- Gravity - Layer --- 18 ------------- ------------- -------------
Rb Rubidium 86 1,532 142,76 3,12 4,53 2,10
Sr Strontium 87,62 2,64 145,50 1,86 3,81 2,11
Y Yttrium 88,9 4,472 147,63 1,11 3,21 2,11
Zi Zirconium 91,22 6,52 151,48 0,78 2,85 2,12
Nb Neobium 92,9 8,57 154,27 0,60 2,62 2,13
Mo Molybdenum 96 10,280 159,36 0,52 2,49 2,14
Tc Technetium 98 11 162,74 0,49 2,45 2,15
Ru Ruthenium 101 12,45 167,72 0,45 2,38 2,16
Rh Rhodium 102 12,41 169,38 0,46 2,39 2,16
Pd Palladium 106 12,023 175,96 0,49 2,44 2,18
Ag Silver 107 10,500 177,62 0,56 2,56 2,18
Cd Cadmium 112,4 8,65 186,65 0,72 2,78 2,20
In Indium 115 7,310 190,90 0,87 2,96 2,21
Sn Tin 119 7,310 197,54 0,90 3,00 2,22
Sb Antimony 122 6,697 202,52 1,01 3,12 2,23
Te Tellurium 128 6,240 212,48 1,14 3,24 2,25
I Iodine 127 4,940 210,82 1,42 3,49 2,24
Xe Xenon 131,30 0,00585 217,95 Gas 33,37 2,25
------------ ------------ ----- Sixth -- Gravity - Layer --- 32 ------------- ------------- -------------
Cs Cesium 133 1,879 220,78 3,93 4,90 2,26
Ba Barium 137 3,510 227,42 2,17 4,01 2,27
La Lanthanum 138,9 6,162 230,66 1,26 3,35 2,27
Ce Cerium 140,116 6,77 232,68 1,15 3,25 2,28
Pr Proseodymium 140,9 6,77 233,98 1,16 3,26 2,28
Nd Neodimiun 144,24 7,01 239,52 1,14 3,24 2,29
Pm Prometium 145 7,26 240,79 1,11 3,21 2,29
Sa Samarium 150,36 7,52 249,69 1,12 3,22 2,30
Eu Europium 151,96 5,264 * 252,34 1,59 * 3,62 * 2,31
Gd Gadolinium 157,25 7,9 261,13 1,11 3,21 2,32
Tb Terbium 158,9 8,23 263,87 1,07 3,17 2,33
Dy Dysprosium 162,5 8,54 269,85 1,06 3,16 2,34
Ho Holmium 164,9 8,79 273,83 1,05 3,15 2,34
Er Erbium 167,26 9,066 277,75 1,03 3,13 2,35
Tm Thulium 168,9 9,32 280,48 1,01 3,11 2,35
Yb Ytterbium 173 6,90 * 287,28 1,39 * 3,46 * 2,36
Lu Lutetium 174,97 9,84 290,56 0,99 3,09 2,37
Hf Hafnium 178,49 13,31 296,40 0,74 2,81 2,37
Ta Tantalum 180,95 16,69 300,49 0,60 2,62 2,38
W Tungsten 184 19,250 305,44 0,53 2,51 2,39
Re Rhenium 186,2 21,02 309,20 0,49 2,45 2,39
Os Osmium 190 22,610 315,40 0,47 2,41 2,40
Ir Iridium 193 22,650 320,38 0,47 2,42 2,41
Pt Platinum 195 21,500 323,70 0,50 2,47 2,41
Au Gold 197 19,300 327,02 0,57 2,57 2,41
Hg Mercury 201 13,600 333,66 0,82 2,90 2,42
Tl Tallium 204,38 11,85 339,39 0,96 3,06 2,43
Pb Lead 207 11,600 343,62 1,00 3,10 2,43
Bi Bismuth 209 9,780 346,94 1,19 3,29 2,44
Po Polonium 209 9,196 347,07 1,26 3,35 2,44
At Astatine 210 ------ 348,73 ------ ------ 2,44
Rd Radon 222 0,00973 368,52 Gas 33,37 2,46
------------ ------------ ---Seventh -- Gravity - Layer ----- ------------- ------------- -------------
Fr Francium 223 1,87 370,31 6,65 5,83 2,46
Ra Radium 226 5,000 375,16 2,52 4,22 2,47
Ac Actinium 227 10,070 376,82 1,25 3,34 2,47
To Thorium 232 11,7 385,26 1,11 3,21 2,48
Pa Protactinium 231 15,37 383,60 0,84 2,92 2,48
U Uranium 238 18,700 395,08 0,70 2,76 2,49
Np Neptunium 237 20,45 393,56 0,65 2,68 2,49
Pu Plutonio 244 19,8 405,19 0,68 2,73 2,50
Am Americium 243 12 403,53 1,13 3,23 2,50


Symbol ---- Name -------- A.Weight --- Density ------ Weight (10-24g )--- Coef. Porosity -- Separation --- Diameter
H Hydrogen 1 0,00009 1,67 ------ 33,37 1
He Helium 4 0,000178 6,64 ------ 33,37 1,26
Ne Neon 20,19 0,000899 33,51 ------ 33,37 1,65
Ar Argon 39,95 0,00178 66,32 ------ 33,37 1,85
Kr Krypton 83,80 0,00374 139,11 ------ 33,37 2,09
Xe Xenon 131,30 0,00585 217,95 ------ 33,37 2,25
Rd Radon 222 0,00973 368,52 ------ 33,37 2,46
N Nitrogen 14 0,001251 23,24 ------ 33,37 1,55
O Oxigen 16 0,001429 26,56 ------ 33,37 1,59
F Fluorine 19 0,0017 31,54 ------ 33,37 1,63
Cl Chlorine 35,5 0,00314 58,93 ------ 33,37 1,81

From the previous table of gases and applying the structural formula, we can deduce that the molecules of noble gases have an atom uniquely, while the other ones are bi-atomic.

The next formula is for gases, but can be used for solids puting the term atoms instead of molecules.




Ionic and covalent radii

By the moment, to measure the ionic and covalent radii and to get a general formula that is good us for it, I will choose a middle useful value for all them (0,3 n).
Nevertheless later on I will adjust better this value and to adapt it to the different dimensions of any atom.


Examples to obtain ionic and covalent radii.


The covalent radii are very different depending on the type of molecules. Here we see a simple one.


Next, a more complicated case


Atoms connections

Main types of bonds and crystal lattices.

Foundation: The nuclei of the gravitational systems (atoms, stars) rotate on themselves (spin) and they make to rotate and to be deformed (in spiral) to the gravitational and magnetic fields that surround them.
This makes that to be able the approaching and union of two or more atoms and to create common orbits (covalent bonds) they have to join in the polar N-S direction, because otherwise their magnetic and gravitational fields would collide producing the rejection among them.
Therefore, to come closer some atoms to other and to create the atomic connections or to build crystals, atoms must approach in the polar direction N-S or S-N.


N-S Magnetic polarity:
As we can see, the magnetic polarity N-S (magnets) is due to the result of the spin and orientation of the fields of forces (gravity and magnetic force), which can be added of rejected depending on the sense of approximation among atoms.

In the following drawing we have the way of connecting atoms to obtain the different types of covalent bonds. In the same way and N-S orientation, the ionic molecules and crystals are built.



In the drawing we see as any type of bond or crystal takes its correspondent interatomic vacuum among its atoms and molecules.
For example, in the Hexa type connection, we have to graphite or fullerene (hexa molecules) united by ionic action and they take certain interatomic vacuum among their atoms and molecules.
While diamonds (also hexa type) are great macromolecules that give less interatomic vacuum among its atoms since all they are united by bonds and not attracted by ionic action, as in graphite.
In liquid water, the interatomic vacuum produced by the repulsion due to its liquid state is compensated with the more complicated Tetra structure that take when is converted into ice (crystal).

Several drawings on the carbon bond types




As we can see, any diamond is a single macro-molecule, which gives it its great hardness since to break it we also have to break its atomic bonds.
(Diamonds are built by mean of hexa group of compound type (benzene type) united all them by intermolecular single bonds.

Several drawings on the vital molecules




The importance of Pi.

As we can see in this theory, Pi is a basic parameter in the building of atoms in such as topics as the density coefficient where Pi intervene in the relation between dimensions and mass of atoms.
In such a way, Pi should be the key to get the value of the unit of atomic mass.
This way I give the mathematical formula to obtain an approximate value for the unit of atomic mass:


This way, we can say:
Pi is the basic number to build atoms and stars and to measure the relation between their levels; between the micro and macro Cosmos.

Other parameters where Pi seems to be essential:
--The already view previously atomic density, Pi x square root of the atomic weight. 3,14 x |/ Aw.
--Lrcf. As we see in the basic formula for stars (below) the lineal ratio of equivalence between stars and atoms is 2Pi.x10E22 = 6,28 x 10E22
--The FINAL or TOTAL ratio between the masses of stars and atoms (below) is the cube for the previous value (2Pi x 10E22 )E3 = 248 X 10E66
--The relation between the unit of atomic weight and the maximum atomic weight that can support the magnetic imbalance (atomic weights of the biggest atoms) it is the cube of 2Pi. (2Pi)E3 = 248

** Strong force is gravity.

Currently physicists tell us that in atoms gravity is minimum, almost imperceptible.
Really! This seems to be a very rare conclusion.
Let us see: The sources of the cosmic gravity reside in the atomic nuclei.
--We see as in our galaxy stars, which are some from other ones to thousands of years light, they attract themselves and this attraction is due to the gravitational force of their atomic nuclei.
--We see like in the external space, the powder and galactic particles attract themselves to form stars and this attraction is due to the gravity of the atomic nuclei.
--We see as the matter of any mass, planet, stars, etc. it is cohesive strongly for the action of the gravity that is produced by the atomic nuclei.
Therefore it is not acceptable to say that, outwardly to atoms, gravity can attract and unite masses and it can attract stars to thousands of years light, but inside the atoms, on its own sources of birth, the gravity is very weak.
Do we maybe forget that gravity decreases with the square of the distance regarding to the mass that produces this gravity?
As my cosmic theory explains, gravity on the surface of an atomic nucleus is the same one than on a star. Equally, gravity on an electron is similar to the one of an equivalent planet.
Then, why it is believed that gravity in atoms is imperceptible?
Because due to the tests to measure have been taken to end in a “hostile medium” as it is inside a gravitational field of enormous dimensions, on the earth.
Inside any star, planets, etc, all and each one of the gravitational fields of their atoms unites to form a single resultant in such a way that atoms don't act for separate, but as a unique resultant.
Now then, if what we want is to measure the gravity on the atomic nuclei, we should keep in mind the relative distance parameters (dimensions) R^2 (6 x 10^22) ^2 between an atomic nucleus and a star, and the coefficient of cohesion of the atomic nuclei with relationship to stars 10^12.

Cosmic Spiral: Orbits and orbital cuts

In the following drawing I expose my formula for the cosmic spiral, in this case with geometry characteristics.


The orbits of electrons are located and built on the orbital cuts.
The orbital cuts are the distances in that the magnetic spiral is cut with its natural radio, as we see in the previous and following drawings.
In the following drawing we see as the magnetic fields (and the gravitational one) are deformed in spiral due to the rotation of the nucleus, and where the orbital cuts and the magnetic orbits are created.


The magnetic orbits attract and maintain to electrons (and planets) rotating on the same ones. (From a maximum to a minimum of width according to the circumstances of each electron. For instance, if for any cause an electron is destroyed or given, the electrons of the adjacent orbits came closer a little to this empty orbit for influencing on it also.)
This way, the magnetic potential of any atom acts by mean of the magnetic orbits, but not on the nucleus.

The orbital cuts can be orbital cuts of the magnetic fields and orbital cuts of the gravitational fields, because as much the gravitational fields as the magnetic ones are deformed in spiral when the nucleus rotates, and therefore the two types of orbital cuts take place.
--The magnetic cuts give us the position of the orbits.
--The gravitational cuts give us the beginning and termination of each gravitational layer.
Due to inside atoms the gravity fields decrease with the square of the distance and the magnetic fields doesn’t, a bigger width of the gravitational layers takes place containing more than one magnetic orbit inside them 2 N2. Also duplication of layers take place as it is explained in my cosmic model.

Now then, as much the magnetic orbits with potential as the gravitational layers tend to be completed and saturated with the acquisition of the necessary orbital ones (electrons, planets).
If they are not complete (and therefore with imbalance), as much the magnetic orbits as the gravitational layers produce a rebalance force that we call polarity.
-The gravitational layers produce the gravitational polarity of saturation; the well-known valency (the electronegative o electropositive gravitational polarity).
-The not adequately saturated magnetic orbits produce the electric of electromagnetic polarity (+,-).

Basic formula for stars


The stellar parameters are similar to the atomic parameters.
The main parameters that we see in the drawing are:

Sm - The star's mass.

Lcf. - Level coefficient: 4,437 x 10E12
The weight of bodies is due to the attraction that their gravitational fields make among them.
In our level, we can measure the whole weight of atoms, that is to say, our earth attracts not alone the atomic nuclei of the bodies, but also their gravitational fields.
However, in our star or sun we alone can measure the weight of its solar nucleus but not of its gravitational fields.
The level coefficient Lcf is the one that drives us to the total weight of our solar system with relations to the attraction that other stars make on our sun.
This parameter is also called dark matter, dark energy, hidden parameter, invisible matter, etc. But really it is the weight (and mutual attraction) of the gravity fields of stars.


R - It is the star's radius from the solar nucleus to its last planet, in the same way as in the atoms the atomic radius is the distance until its last electron.

Sw - It is the stellar weight.
Similar as in atoms the atomic weight Aw is the ratio between the weight of atoms and the unit of atomic mass, in stars the stellar weight Sw is the ratio between the star's mass and the unit of stellar mass Ums.

Ums - It is the unit of stellar mass.
The unit of stellar mass (similar as in atoms with their unit of atomic mass), it is the one that represents the smallest star, which would have alone a planet to its surroundings, situated to the Unit of Stellar Radius (Ur = 3,1515 x 10E12 metres).
The unit of stellar mass Ums has a value of 0,9283 x 10E29 kilograms.

Lrcf - Coefficient of lineal relation among levels.
It is the lineal ratio of distances between atoms and stars in relation to equivalent elements. The value of the Lrcf is of 2Pi x 10E22
For example.
Taking an equivalent atom to our solar system that could be a sodium atom, of radius 0,84 x 10E-10 m.
We multiply this radius of sodium 0,84 x 10E-10 by Lrcf. 2Pi x 10E22 and we have:

0,84 x 10E-10 X 2Pi x 10E22 = 5,277 x 10E12 metres

which would be the radius of our solar system.


Mrcf - Coefficient of masses among levels.
It is the relations or ratio between the mass of any stellar element and its equivalent one in atoms.
For example,
Given our satellite or moon, with weight of 7,35 x 10E25 grams.
If we divide this quantity for the relation coefficient of masses among levels Mrcf. (5,59 x 10E55) we will have:

7,35 x 10E25 / 5,59 x 10E55 = 1,315 x 10E-30 grams.

And this it would be the weight of an equivalent neutrino that was rotating around any electron.

Situation of the orbits of planets


Cohesion of systems. -

When the gravitational systems (atoms, stars) go increasing their size, their cosmic spirals go being cohered and joining to the nucleus of the system.
In such a case when the systems are very big, the interior gravitational layers and magnetic orbits go being absorbed into the nucleus and alone last these external layers and orbits.
This way, the big systems conserve one or two external layers only and about 20 orbital ones.

Fields of rotary force in atoms.

Orbital cuts and orbits of electrons.

The gravitational systems such as atoms and stars are constituted by two main elements:

1.- The visible matter as the central nuclei, and the orbital ones (electrons, planets) as well as of smaller multitude of particles that rotate around the nucleus (energy particles), and by the particles that rotate around the orbital ones (neutrino, satellites or moons).

2.- The non visible energy fields as the gravitational and magnetic fields.
In fact, the visible matter or mass is simply energy fields structured into gravitational systems.

Because well, the true atomic structure is supported by the gravitational and magnetic fields that surround to the central nucleus.
This energy fields (gravitational) and force fields (magnetic) are supported and adscript to the nuclear material and therefore to each atom (or sub-atom) of the same one, with which, when the nuclear matter rotates on itself also obligates to make it to the fields of force that surround it.
When these fields of force rotate around the nucleus, these fields are deformed in spiral around this nucleus, and as consequence, the orbital cuts or distances of magnetic and gravitational balance are produced.
This circumstance is due to the cosmic energy births and is developed in straight line and when by its rotation is deformed into spiral form, this energy alone it is totally balanced in the points of the spiral that are radially aligned with their supporting atoms, say, alone in the cuts points between the spiral and the natural radius of the nucleus.
To these cut points we call orbital cuts, and these distances are where the orbital ones (electrons, planets) are located in the magnetic fields, and where begin and finish the gravitational layers.

In the following drawing we see the orbital cuts or magnetic lines, as well as the orbits of electrons.


Why is this theory better?

1.- This theory is completed in all the places and levels of the Cosmos: At atomic level and at stellar level (Micro and macro-cosmos).

2.- It agrees the classic physical laws (forces, motions, momentums, etc.)

3.- It is very simple; only using two forces for the complete structuring of the Cosmos: Gravity and Magnetic Force.

4.- It doesn't use Uncertainty. Situation of electrons (and planets), atomic masses, atomic radii, atomic density, etc. they are perfectly defined, structured and measured by means of mathematical formulas.

5.- It interrelates the different levels of the Cosmos (atoms, stars) by means of formulas and parameter of relation.

6.- It simplifies the types and classes of particles by means of a unique type of structuring, composition and behaviour in all them.

7.- It explains the birth of forces and motions by means of the imbalance and rebalance of the gravitational systems or natural units of energy and cosmic matter, which tries to be redistributed in the same quantity and density through the Cosmos:

In this sense, the fields of magnetic and gravitational forces are the ones that produce any type of vectorial forces and motions in the Cosmos.

8.- It explains the cosmic structuring and the reason, birth and foundations of their main elements, such as space, time, energy, gravitation, forces magnetic, matter, atoms, etc.

Some drawing on this theory.





Neutrons Proof

Standard theory.

A test in favour of my atomic theory as for the non-existence of well-defined nuclear particles can be given by the existence or not of neutrons as the current theories bet.
If neutrons really exist inside the atomic nuclei, then atoms would not have limitation to have any quantity of neutrons and we would find this way atoms of helium with two, three, four, five….. twenty neutrons.
The only thing required it is that any atom of helium has two protons and two electrons.

Ferman's Theory.

But according to my theory this is not possible since the increment of mass of an atom makes also increases its magnetic fields, and when the magnetic fields increase these produce new orbits around atoms, changing and getting new type of atoms.
Therefore here, an atomic nucleus can go increasing its mass, but alone while its magnetic fields don't increase enough to create a new orbit. When these magnetic fields get potential to create a new orbit, the atom becomes the following atom of the periodic table.
As we see, here nuclear particles don't intervene, but only the influence of the nuclear mass as a single particle that is.


This is the summary of my atomic model carried out from 1975 to 1992 mainly.