Theory on the Genetic Heredity
Of ferman: Fernando Mancebo Rodríguez ---- Personal page
You can see summaries of all my studies in the following web pages:
Model of Cosmos ||| Atomic model||| Speed of Forces ||| Magnet : N-S Magnetic Polarity ||| Static and Dynamic Chaos
Radial coordinates||| Theory on the physical and mathematical sets | Algebraic product of sets.||| Planar angles: Trimetry |||
Properties of division
Spherical Molecules ||| Metaphysics (Spanish) ||| In Genetic Heredity
Rotary Engine ||| Andalusian Roof Tile
Garbage Triangle: Quantum mechanics, Relativity, Standard theory ||| Nuclei of galaxies.
||| Hydrocarbons, water and vital principles on the Earth. ||| Cosmos formula : Metaphysics ||| Ubiquity Principle of set.
||| Chaos Fecundity. Symbiosis: from the Chaos to the Evolution.
The following exposition are opinions and studies of its author exclusively.
Currently, I observe as one of the main queries and questions that geneticists have are the lack of understanding of the procedure that genetics or genes follows to get the diversity of animals and plants existent in our planet.
Continually I hear such queries as: How is it possible that with similar genes and chromosomes the Genetics can get animals so different?
On the other hand, in the current convictions in genetics is to bet that genes are the only ones that take in charge the genetic heredity of the animals and plants.
I believe that this point of view is erroneous and from it derives mainly the lack of understanding of the genetic procedures in the structuring and development of the alive beings.
And what it is the question that the geneticists don't keep in mind when valuing the procedures of genetic development?
Because the true life heredity -and the elements promoters of the same one– are in all and each one of the cellular elements and not alone in genes.
The work of genes in the human being's architecture consists, all that by means of the reproduction and allotment of cells through space until creating the alive being in question, as well as of the specialization of the different cells for the alive being's organs.
But this work is already carried out on all the elements and cellular organs created previously with their own peculiarities and with their heredity and genetic characteristics taken place through times in a continuous development.
Therefore, and in general, genes don't create new cellular organs but rather they incite, prepare (and supply the basic materials) for the reproduction of these cellular organs in such a way that each cell has the appropriate cellular organs according to the place and specialization that these cells must have.
Therefore genes would be the organizers of a heredity that already goes implicit in cellular organs of the alive being.
This means for example that if to an ovum of a fly we introduce it the human genes, a human being could not be created because the ovum of the fly doesn't have the cellular organs or genetic heredity that the human needs.
** The procedure of the genes performance –simplified- is in my page DNA and genetic Code on spherical molecules.**
This way for example, genes and their derived (RNA) by mean of the alignment of their nucleotides or genetic code, they can also align next to them to the specific amino acids for this code and unite them by means of the phosphate molecules (energy) that take, forming this way the specific proteins for the reproduction of the cellular organs –also specific- for each cell.
Therefore we should keep in mind that if these cellular organs didn't exist, neither genes would be able to create them.
So, we should consider that the genetic heredity is kept in all and each one of the elements and cellular organs of the common cells or ovum –also in the genetics of the sperm- and this cell in its entirety is the true warehouses of the heredity of the alive beings.
Up in the first drawing, we see a theoretical representation of a fecundated ovum -in the first duplication phase- which carries all the cellular organs with their corresponding acquired genetic heredity through time.
These cellular organs will be selected and supported in its reproduction and work by genes, promoting this way the cellular specialization according to the corporal organ that later on will constitute.
In the following drawing it is explained as ovum mark their own development lines and they transmit the vital heredity from ovum to ovum through time.
This means that each ovum have to be direct descendent of another previous ovum, marking this way its direct line of transmitted heredity.
Regarding to the first question that we had made on the difference among a great animal and other microscopic one, it is due to two main factors:
----The size, which although it can seem difficult to get with similar genes, it is not this way since with simple multipliers or inductors of cellular reproduction of almost identical characteristics –alone reproducers of cells- and later on with the contribution of hormones of growth, differences of enormous sizes can be gotten.
----As for the other characteristic of the species, these go detailed in the total heredity kept in the common cells -or ovum- of each species and alone one ovum is necessary to take all the cellular organs for the posterior replica of all cells.
Then, and as I point the mentioned page with respect to the genetic code, these common cells by means of genes go selecting, specializing and promoting the proliferation of those cellular organs that are useful for each cell according to the corporal organ to which they are incorporated.
Therefore the work of genes, when they are developing the alive being, seems to be simple and with double functionality:
--Duplication of cells and
--To get their specialization by means of the support and development of the specific cellular organs of each one of these cells.
A large series of favourable circumstances are necessary for the life's birth, and not all the planets have them.
A complete study of all the requirements would be almost impossible to make it here, but we can give or expose the main steps or stages of the vital development, of course, as for this theory.
1.- In the first place we would count with some type of basic and common atmospheric elements, necessary for beginning the life development, say: NH3, CO2, OH2, CH4.
2.- In second place and besides the previous elements, the planet would have to be located at the adequate distance from its sun, with temperatures that facilitate the chemical reaction of these elements and the necessary atmospheric cycles.
Therefore it is necessary also an appropriate temperature since a lot of temperature would give us heightened products and unable to react among them. And with little temperature these elements would not have enough reaction temperature.
To the set of these elements and the temperature and favourable energy is to what we called "broth of the life" since with it you can end up getting and producing the life on the planets.
3.- With the previous elements and the appropriate temperature, the Atmospheric and Vital Cycles (A&VC) take place in the planets, producing cycles of chemical reactions that give us very varied types of hydrocarbons among them amino acids, amines, amides, etc., forming a broth of vital cultivation as preamble for the life. (See water-hydrocarbons-life page.)
4. - Already inside of that rich medium in chains of hydrocarbons, amino acids, etc. the first phases of the properly vital development would take place. These are the phase of interrelation of molecular communities (IMC).
These phases consist on the coexistence of diverse a much varied molecules and macro-molecules that with its simple coexistence an interrelation among them in the same place, they would go supplementing and complementing themselves, giving molecular combinations, interchanges of factors, cooperation y mutual transformation, and finally, development and increment of their own dimensions and capacities.
5.- And already in this phase of coexistence and interrelation of multiple molecules is where a new capacity would be born, the main capacity and foundation of the life, the Simple Molecular Mitosis (SMM), which consists on a simple partition of the big macro-molecules for the simple reason of its great dimension, for later on, to go growing and to be broken again when its dimensions are too big.
The molecules that were able to contain and to adapt to this Molecular Mitosis could go this way growing and being duplicated indefinitely and dominating the medium where they settled down.
Therefore already in this phase or vital stage it is where the category of vital level is acquired, say, where the development and reproduction is gotten.
6.- After this vital phase or capacity of molecular mitosis, the road toward the superior life would be cleared since alone it would be needed time and organization of big communities of mitotic molecules.
The following pass would be this way the organization of diverse communities of mitotic molecules forming the well known organelles, and in turn, different and complementary organelles would form the future vital cells.
And as we know, later on the vital cells would form the vegetable and animals bodies.
Because well, as a result of this whole vital process, we have acquired at the end an entire vital heritage that is transmitted through the times and that as we have explained here and in other studies (Classes of genes) this heredity of two main types mainly consists:
A.- The cellular organelles that conform the cells.
B.- The Chromosomes system that contain the plans of architecture and guidelines for distributing organelles and cells.
As we see this theory it doesn't contemplate the possibility that the system of chromosomes is the only one that acts on the heritage, and that system cannot build cellular organelles, but rather alone can distributes them appropriately in the cells according to the organ and function to make.
Therefore here it is contemplated an ancestral Genetics of Organelles and a Genetic of Chromosomes with capacity of emitting inductors to propitiate the organelles and cells proliferation and to conform this way the vital bodies.
As we have seen, the system of structuring of the multi-cellular beings makes that all the cells and organelles are subjected to a blockade or proliferation control, say, so that an organelle and mainly a cell can be reproduced it is necessary of a key or inductor of growth that authorizes the duplication.
This is consequence of the necessity of maintaining a strict control on the dimensions, shape and functionality of the animal bodies.
And in fact, in that consists chromosomes and other induction systems for the duplication (maintenance inductors, hormone of growth, etc.), in being carriers of inductors packages for the proliferation of cells and cellular organelles.
The appropriate emission of these inductors is what conforms and maintain to the vital body in its structure and appropriate vitality.
Following I include other notes on the genetic procedure as they are the phases of vital development and the aging of the multi-cellular beings.
Three development phases exist in the multi-cellular beings carried out each one of them for a chromosome type or inductor of reproduction.
--In the first phase or Phase of Organic Development each chromosome that represents an organ of the body that takes inscribed the transformation norms (genes), takes a development line, starting from a common cell coming from the fecundation and transforming it into the corresponding organ.
This phase would have two main stages:
A first stage (PRE-ORGANIC) of cellular divisions in which the common cells necessary so that each chromosome system begins its own line of organic development are produced.
A second and main stage (ORGANIC SPECIALIZATION) in the one each chromosome chooses its own development line, following it until being able to complete the assembly of its competent organ.
This phase finishes approximately to the birth.
--In the second phase or Phase of Growth the growth's hormone executes duplications of all the cells until getting the individual's normal size. This phase is on until the thirty years.
--In the third phase or Phase of Maintenance inducers (probably located them in the external membrane of the cells in union with the neighbours) induce to the reproduction of the cells every time that a neighbour dies and it is necessary another new cell to substitute it.
This phase is on until the being's death.
The lack or bad operation of these elements, mainly of the maintenance inducers, it is what causes the cancers and the precocious aging, as it is detailed and explains in the mentioned work.
-In cancers the maintenance inducers (or other) last free or united to the nuclei, producing cellular duplication continuously.
-In precocious aging, the lack of maintenance inducers or impossibility of being liberated correctly is the reason for that the cellular duplication can't be carry out. So in persons with this illness their maintenance phase doesn't work and they ages quickly.
The aging of the multi-cellular beings is in fact a “defect” of its condition of stable colony of organized cells, that is to say, aging exists to be an stable multi-cellular entity without capacity of indefinite growth when being paralysed this growth when arriving to the maturity of the same one, conserving starting from then a quantity of cells perfectly defined.
This paralysis or detention in the development of the cells produce a functional paralysis of the same ones due to now they cannot follow their reproduction continually as they made it in the stage of growth, and this state prevents to eliminate the erosion and produced wear, which alone they could eliminate reproducing and transforming to bigger speed that the suffering wear, according to the following relative formula of organic vitality:
This defect doesn't suffer the unicellular beings since when they are under conditions of reproducing, they do, and their reproduction speed and evolution is very bigger than the suffering erosion.
On the other hand the cells in the multi-cellular beings alone can reproduce when a neighbouring cell dies and they have to execute a duplication to occupy this vacant position, question that alone happens occasionally, being in this case their internal erosion much bigger than their evolution or reproduction.
The death as it is logical takes place for an extreme aging that prevents the being to continue executing the necessary vital functions for their vital maintenance.
The biological erosion has its principle in the physical erosion of the molecules that compose the vital cells. Therefore it is not a genetic problem but a physical problem.
The molecular erosion is directly proportional to the number of atoms and molecules that compose the alive fabric, mainly the genetic fabric. Therefore while more complicated it is this fabric more erosion possibility it has.
As we have said previously, when not having the cells of the multi-cellular beings continuous development and to be subjected to long periods of reproductive stagnation, this produces them a great erosion and genetic decomposition that is cumulative, finishing with the total aging and death of the multi-cellular.
I expose here the term "Cellular Re-foundation" to explain a procedure or fundamental function in the multi-cellular beings which it is the reconstruction and vital re-initiation of the complete structure of each being when this is created with the union of the masculine and feminine gametes.
For it, I make a brief history of the vital processes, keeping in mind the process and reason of the aging that is explained up. In the alive beings, when being constituted by infinity of molecules, they suffer the effect of the physical erosion that these chemical compounds take implicit when having millions and millions of atoms and molecules, and then with the course of time they go suffer small but continuous molecular changes that finish with important variation and destruction of the initial structures of the being.
This erosion and continuous decomposition is to what we call aging and like we know it finishes with the alive being's death.
Because well, this physical and biological deterioration due to molecular y atomic erosion can be conquered and avoided in two different ways:
ONE, as in the unicellular ones, when the evolution or transformation speed and cellular duplication is very big and the cell are transformed and readapted to more speed than the own erosion or cellular degeneration.
That is to say, in the unicellular beings the transformation speed and cellular re-adaptation is bigger than the speed of their erosion and therefore this erosion is conquered and overcome.
TWO, in the multi-cellular, by means of the cellular Re-foundation in the reproduction of new alive beings with total restructuring and new foundation of the parents cells when uniting the gametes of each one of them to restructure some new vital cells in their descendant.
Let us remember that in the multi-cellular, the duplication speed is minimum since of what is important here it is the individual maintenance with the adequate number of cells to conform the strict architecture of its body, and this way the cells cannot be divided or duplicated until some aged cell dies and it leaves its place for another new one.
Therefore in the multi-cellular beings the aging of the cells takes place due to their long period of not reproduction, and therefore the individual in its entirety also age reaching finally the being's death.
So in this case it is necessity the sexual reproduction by means of the re-foundation of new cells so that the new individual can be born starting from zero without has the accumulated aging that his parents had.
Therefore here we can ask ourselves an important question.
What cellular duplication and re-foundation are?
Cellular duplication is the reproduction of a cell, resulting in two equal cells and with the same characteristics.
But all the characteristics, as much the positive as the negatives ones, included the suffered deterioration or erosion in their cellular organs, DNA, etc. during their period of life.
Therefore, also last the aging, obtaining form the duplication of an aged cell to two cells also with aging defects.
On the other hand the cellular re-foundation is something completely different because with it what is gotten is the birth of a new cells that begins from zero, say, that it has been built or re-founded in its entirety with genetic elements of very specific inheritance, which have BEEN SAVED of the aging by similar procedure to ONE. Say, processes of continuous and speedy duplication (sperms) or of maturation and continuous reproduction as in the ova that make of them (ova and sperms) genetic systems in quick evolution with that avoid the aging of these elements.
This way in the re-foundation, contributing each sex their gamete and fusing both, the reconstruction of a new being takes place starting from zero and without acquired aging.